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More information about Fashion & Photography The fashion industry is a product of the modern age. Prior to the mid-19th century, most clothing was custom-made. It was handmade for individuals, either as home production or on order from dressmakers and tailors. By the beginning of the 20th century with the rise of new technologies such as the sewing machine, the rise of global capitalism and the development of the factory system of production, and the proliferation of retail outlets such as department stores clothing had increasingly come to be mass-produced in standard sizes and sold at fixed prices. Although the fashion industry developed first in Europe and America, as of 2014 it is an international and highly globalized industry, with clothing often designed in one country, manufactured in another, and sold world-wide. For example, an American fashion company might source fabric in China and have the clothes manufactured in Vietnam, finished in Italy, and shipped to a warehouse in the United States for distribution to retail outlets internationally. The fashion industry has long been one of the largest employers in the United States, and it remains so in the 21st century. However, U.S. employment declined considerably as production increasingly moved overseas, especially to China. Because data on the fashion industry typically are reported for national economies and expressed in terms of the industry's many separate sectors, aggregate figures for world production of textiles and clothing are difficult to obtain. However, by any measure, the clothing industry accounts for a significant share of world economic output. The fashion industry consists of four levels: the production of raw materials, principally fibers and textiles but also leather and fur the production of fashion goods by designers, manufacturers, contractors, and others retail sales various forms of advertising and promotion These levels consist of many separate but interdependent sectors,[which?] each devoted to the goal of satisfying consumer demand for apparel under conditions that enable participants in the industry to operate at a profit. Fashion photography has been in existence since the earliest days of photography. In 1856, Adolphe Braun published a book containing 288 photographs of Virginia Oldoini, Countess di Castiglione, a Tuscan noblewoman at the court of Napoleon III. The photos depict her in her official court garb, making her the first fashion model.[1] In the first decade of the 20th century, advances in halftone printing allowed fashion photographs to be featured in magazines. Fashion photography made its first appearance in French magazines such as La mode practique. In 1909, Conde Nast took over Vogue magazine and also contributed to the beginnings of fashion photography. In 1911, photographer Edward Steichen was "dared" by Lucien Vogel, the publisher of Jardin des Modes and La Gazette du Bon Ton, to promote fashion as a fine art by the use of photography. Steichen then took photos of gowns designed by couturier Paul Poiret. These photographs were published in the April 1911 issue of the magazine Art et De coration. According to Jesse Alexander, This is "...now considered to be the first ever modern fashion photography shoot. That is, photographing the garments in such a way as to convey a sense of their physical quality as well as their formal appearance, as opposed to simply illustrating the object." A modern fashion photograph by Inez van Lamsweerde Vogue was followed by its rival, Harper's Bazaar, and the two companies were leaders in the field of fashion photography throughout the 1920s and 1930s. House photographers such as Edward Steichen, George Hoyningen-Huene, Horst P. Horst and Cecil Beaton transformed the genre into an outstanding art form. In the mid-1930s as World War II approached, the focus shifted to the United States, where Vogue and Harper's continued their old rivalry. In 1936, Martin Munkacsi made the first photographs of models in sporty poses at the beach. Under the artistic direction of Alexey Brodovitch, Harper's Bazaar quickly introduced this new style into its magazine. House photographers such as Irving Penn, Martin Munkacsi, Richard Avedon, and Louise Dahl-Wolfe would shape the look of fashion photography for the following decades. Richard Avedon revolutionized fashion photography and redefined the role of the fashion photographer in the post-World War II era with his imaginative images of the modern woman. From 1939 and onward, what had previously been the flourishing and sizeable industry of fashion photography all but stopped due to the beginnings of World War II. The United States and Euope quickly diverged from one another. What had previously been a togetherness and inspired working relationship divulged as Paris was occupied and London under siege. Paris, the main fashion-power house of the time quickly became isolated from the United States especially with French Vogue shutting down for a brief hiatus in 1940.[4] With these changes, the photography based out of the USA gained a distinct Americana vibe models often posed with flags, American brand cars, and generally just fulfilling the American ideal. What did remain of the French and British fashion photography on the other hand often had a wartime overlay to the content. Cecil Beaton's 'Fashion is Indestructible' from 1945 displays a well-dressed woman viewing the rubble that once was Middle Temple in London. Similarly, Lee Miller began taking photos of women in Paris and London, modeling the latest designs for gas masks and bicycling with pincurlers in their hair, as they did not have electricity with which to curl their hair. Images such as these remain scarred into the face of fashion photography of the time and display a common sentiment among the fashionable world and the public. Even fashion photographers worked to document the issues surrounding and work towards a documentation of the time even if within the frame of fashion. These photos are an especially good indication of the fashionable emotions of the time. Many felt that fashion photography, during wartime especially, was frivolous and unnecessary. Yet, the few who worked to preserve the industry did so in new and inventive ways throughout the duration of the war. In postwar London, John French pioneered a new form of fashion photography suited to reproduction in newsprint, involving natural light and low contrast.

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Some top fashion design brands as additional or alternative options of high quality design and textile are

A

Heavy Eco
A.P.C.
Reem Acra
Akris
Reem Alasadi
Alexander McQueen (brand)
Alfred Dunhill Ltd.
Charlie Allen (designer)
Ally Capellino
Alter és Kiss
Andrés Sardá
Andrew Marc
Aquascutum
Armani
Audience by PETROU\MAN

B

Agnès b.
Badgley Mischka
Balenciaga
Bally Shoe
Balmain (fashion house)
Neil Barrett (fashion designer)
Belle & Bunty
Bellville Sassoon
Beulah London
Dirk Bikkembergs
Bill Blass Limited
Ozwald Boateng
BodyMap
Bonia (fashion)
Bontoni
Hugo Boss
Bottega Veneta
BP Studio
Veronique Branquinho
Brioni (fashion)
Thom Browne
Brunello Cucinelli (company)
Bulgari
Burberry

C

Cacharel
Camilla and Marc
Caraceni
Jane Carr (fashion designer)
Cartier (jeweler)
Dean and Dan Caten
Roberto Cavalli
Céline (brand)
Cerruti
Cerruti 1881
Hussein Chalayan
Chanel
Charvet Place Vendôme
Shiatzy Chen
Chloé
Christian Dior S.A.
Chrome Hearts
Clements Ribeiro
Comme des Garçons
Jasper Conran
Corneliani
Costello Tagliapietra
Crolla
CuteCircuit
Cutler and Gross
Cyma Watches

D

Wendy Dagworthy
DAKS


D cont.

Damani Dada
Damiani (jewelry company)
DAS Collection
Ann Demeulemeester
Dior Homme
Dolce & Gabbana
Dominique Aurientis
Duvelleroy

E

Benoît-Pierre Emery
Ermanno Scervino
Escada
Etro
Extè

F

Façonnable
Fame Fashion and Creative Excellence (FFACE)
Fendi
Gianfranco Ferré
Fiorucci
Tom Ford
Franck Sorbier
Frey Wille
Frost French
Holly Fulton
Diane von Fürstenberg

G

Katie Gallagher
John Galliano
Jean Paul Gaultier
Frida Giannini
Dege & Skinner
Gieves & Hawkes
Giusto Manetti Battiloro
Givenchy
Ana González (fashion designer)
Goyard
Gravati
Great Greenland Furhouse
Gucci

H

H.J. Cave & Sons
Hackett London
Halston
Hamilton Jewelers
Hansengross
Hardy Amies Ltd
Haus Alkire
Helmut Lang (fashion brand)
Alexandre Herchcovitch
Hermès
Carolina Herrera (fashion designer)
Hield
House of Flora

I

Iceberg (fashion house)
IRFE (fashion house)
Isabel Marant

J

Jil Sander (brand)
Jimmy Choo Ltd
John Varvatos (company)
Joseph (fashion brand)

K

Karen Kane
Donna Karan
Mary Katrantzou
Rabih Kayrouz
Kenzo (brand)
Kiton
Michael Kors
Xander Kostroma

L

L.K.Bennett
La Martina


L cont.

Christian Lacroix
Karl Lagerfeld
Lagos (jewelry)
Derek Lam
Lanvin (clothing)
Guy Laroche
Monique Lhuillier
Phillip Lim
J.Lindeberg
Linnanen
Loewe, S.A.
Christian Louboutin
Louis Vuitton
LOVA
Lucchese Boot Company
Luxottica

M

Mad Carpentier
Madeleine Vramant
Tomas Maier
Mainbocher
Malo (company)
Arefeh Mansouri
Marchesa (brand)
Martin Margiela
Marimekko
Marina Rinaldi
Mario Hernández (Fashion House)
Marni (clothing)
Mataano
Maui Jim
Max Mara
Stella McCartney
Lorenzo Merlino
Michael Michalsky
Carlos Miele
Missoni
Miu Miu
Issey Miyake
Modern Creation Munich
Moschino
Mulberry (company)

N

Net-a-Porter
Nigel Cabourn
Nina Ricci (brand)
Norton & Sons

O

Obrey (watches)
Marvin Oduber
Charlotte Olympia
Oroton
Oscar and Jesus
Rick Owens
Oxxford Clothes

P

Cesare Paciotti
Paule Ka
Jérémie Pauzié
Perry Ellis (brand)
Petrodvorets Watch Factory
PETROU\MAN
Nicolas Petrou
Philipp Plein
Pomellato
Henry Poole & Co
Prada
Pringle of Scotland
Project D
Emilio Pucci

P

Gareth Pugh

Q

Qeelin

R

Randi Rahm
Raja Fashions
Raketa
Ralph & Russo
Oscar de la Renta
John Richmond (fashion designer)
Carla Rigg
RM (clothing)
Roberto Coin
Rochas
Rodarte
Narciso Rodriguez
Roland Mouret
Sergio Rossi
Christian Roth
Ralph Rucci
Rudsak
Rue du Mail
Sonia Rykiel

S

S.E.H Kelly
Elie Saab
Safilo
Salvatore Ferragamo S.p.A.
Sant Blanc


S cont.

Ferdinando Sarmi
Sass & bide
Satya Paul
Elsa Schiaparelli
Sealup
Sermoneta Gloves
Shanghai Tang
Shreve & Co.
Raf Simons
John Smedley (industrialist)
Paul Smith (fashion designer)
Smythson
Yotam Solomon
SONGZIO
Luciano Soprani
Garo Sparo
St. John (clothing)
Star in the Hood (company)
Strathberry of Scotland
Stylenite
Anna Sui

T

Vivienne Tam
TechnoMarine
Threeasfour
Tibi (fashion brand)
Tiffany & Co.
Tori Richard
Pauline Trigère
Tumbler and Tipsy
Turnbull & Asser

U

Kay Unger

V

Valentino SpA
Kris Van Assche
Walter Van Beirendonck
Dries van Noten
Versace
Viktor & Rolf

W

Alexander Wang (designer)
Vera Wang
Warmenhoven & Venderbos
Vivienne Westwood
Matthew Williamson
Wooyoungmi
Jason Wu
Wunderkind (fashion)

Y

Yohji Yamamoto
Yeohlee
Yuvna Kim
Yves Saint Laurent (brand)

Z

Zeena Zaki
Giuseppe Zanotti
Ermenegildo Zegna